Hydraulic fracturing is a treatment performed on oil and gas wells, most commonly used on productive zones exhibiting low to moderate permeability.
Special viscosified oil or water based fluids are pumped into the reservoir at high pressure and rate, causing fractures radiating out from the casing.
A propping agent, such as grains of sand or man-made ceramic beads, are mixed with the treatment fluid and pumped into the fracture to keep it open when the treatment is complete.
Alternately, hydrochloric acid may be pumped, effectively etching the walls of the fracture so the two faces cannot close completely after pumping is complete.
Hydraulic fracturing creates a highly conductive pathway to the well, while also eliminating any drilling damage that may exist. Both daily production and total recoverable reserves are improved.